Alexander I

(1777–1825)
   Czar of Russia 1801–25. Alexander was one of the controversial figures of the 19 century. He began his reign with the hope of internal reform but ended it in darkness and oppression. His policy towards the Jews took a similar turn. Realizing that the Jews in those areas of Poland annexed to Russia had been miserably repressed, he set up a committee to consider all aspects of the question. The Jewish Statute, promulgated in 1804, was based on the assumption that the Jews would disappear if encouraged to emerge from their ghetto existence, given secular education and assimilated into Christian cultural life. The statute also called for them to be directed into occupations other than trade, chiefly into factories and agriculture. On the other hand, the law embodied strict regulations restricting the areas where Jews could live, work or own land. This was done allegedly to protect the peasants from exploitation.
   The horrors of Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, and the burning of Moscow, gave the czar’s ill-balanced mind an intensely religious twist. He began a policy of forcing the Jews to convert to Christianity. His reign saw the repression of the Jews increased rather than lessened.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

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  • Alexander VI —     Pope Alexander VI     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Alexander VI     Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503. His parents were Jofre Lançol and Isabella Borja, sister of …   Catholic encyclopedia

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  • Alexander — Alexander, AR U.S. town in Arkansas Population (2000): 614 Housing Units (2000): 305 Land area (2000): 0.448323 sq. miles (1.161152 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.448323 sq. miles (1.161152 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Alexander V — • Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Alexander V     …   Catholic encyclopedia

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  • ALEXANDER° — ALEXANDER°, name of seven popes. The following are the most significant for Jewish history: ALEXANDER II, reigned 1061–73, consistently followed the policy set by Pope gregory the Great at the end of the sixth century of applying suasion rather… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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