Shneur, Zalman of Lyady
- (1745–1813)Founder of Chabad Chassidism. Zalman Shneur was born in Byelorussia, and at the age of twenty moved to Mezhirech to join DOV BAER the maggid, the head of the chassidic movement. After the maggid’s death, Zalman Shneur was acknowledged as the leading chassidic thinker; and from the shtetl of Lyady in Byelorussia his influence extended throughout Eastern Europe. A fine scholar of the Talmud and the Cabbala, he was both an intellectual and a mystic. He was the founder of the type of Chassidism known as Chabad, a name derived from the initials of the words Chochmah (‘wisdom’), Binah (‘understanding’) and Da’at (‘knowledge’). Chabad differs from other types of Chassidism in its stress on the study of the Torah. Zalman Shneur’s eldest son and successor Dov Baer (1773–1827) moved to Lubavich, a place that gave its name to the main Chabad sect. The heads of Chabad became the Schneersohn family, direct descendants of the founder. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn (1880–1950) was the religious leader of Soviet Jewry after the revolution. He was arrested in 1927 but released owing to pressure from abroad, and settled first in Riga, Latvia, then in Poland. After the German occupation of Poland in 1939, he reached the United States, and built up a network of Chabad institutions and activities from a new centre in Brooklyn. He also founded Kfar Chabad in Israel. The third president of Israel, Zalman SHAZAR, was an adherent of Chabad, and when on visits to the United States called on the Lubavicher Rebbe in his Brooklyn home.
Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. Joan Comay . 2012.
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SHNEUR ZALMAN OF (Liozna-) LYADY — (1745–1813), founder of chabad Ḥasidism. According to family traditions he was born in Liozna, Belorussia, on the 18th of Elul. After his marriage in 1760 he devoted himself to Torah study. Concluding that he knew a little about learning, but… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
SHNEOUR (Shneur), ZALMAN — (Zalkind; 1887–1959), Hebrew and Yiddish poet and novelist who, together with bialik and tchernichowsky , is considered to be one of the three great figures in Hebrew poetry of his generation. Shneour was born in Shklov, Belorussia; his father,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Shazar (Rubashov), Shneur Zalman — (b. 1899) Third president of Israel. Rubashov (later, Shazar, from the Hebrew initials of his name) was born in Russia. He helped organize Jewish self defence groups during the 1905 revolution and became active in the Marxist Zionist Poale… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Lyady — Lyady, Liady, or Liadi may refer to one of the following settlements:*Lyady, Smolevichi District, Smolevichi District, Minsk Voblast, Belarus [http://globus.tut.by/lyady smol/index.htm] *Lyady, Zhlobin District, Zhlobin District, Homiel Voblast,… … Wikipedia
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN — (the Vilna Gaon or Elijah Gaon ; acronym Ha GRA = Ha Gaon Rabbi Eliyahu; 1720–1797), one of the greatest spiritual and intellectual leaders of Jewry in modern times. A man of iron will, Elijah combined the personal life of an intellectual hermit… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ḤASIDISM — ḤASIDISM, a popular religious movement giving rise to a pattern of communal life and leadership as well as a particular social outlook which emerged in Judaism and Jewry in the second half of the 18th century. Ecstasy, mass enthusiasm, close knit … Encyclopedia of Judaism
CHABAD — CHABAD, a trend in the ḥasidic movement founded in the 18th century by Israel b. Eliezer Ba al Shem Tov . Ḥabad was created by shneur zalman of lyady , a disciple of dov baer the maggid of mezhirich and of menahem mendel of vitebsk . When… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI (Horwitz) OF STA-ROSIELCE — (1766–1828), leader of a dissenting group in the chabad branch of Lithuanian Ḥasidism. Born in Orshva Aaron was a descendant of the family of Isaiah Leib horwitz (Shelah; 1555–1630) and was considered both a brilliant interpreter of ḥasidic… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
AVIGDOR BEN JOSEPH ḤAYYIM — (18th–19th centuries), rabbi in Poland, one of the leading opponents of Ḥasidism in Poland Lithuania in the late 18th century. In 1785 he became rabbi of Pinsk and its district, but through the influence of the Ḥasidim he was dismissed in 1794,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER BA'AL SHEM TOV — (known by the initials of Ba al Shem Tov as Besht; c. 1700–1760), charismatic founder and first leader of Ḥasidism in Eastern Europe. (See Chart: Ba al Shem Tov Family). Through oral traditions handed down by his pupils (jacob joseph of Polonnoye … Encyclopedia of Judaism