Oppenheimer, J. Robert

(1904–67)
   American physicist. Oppenheimer was born into a wealthy and cultured New York family. A brilliant career at Harvard was followed by post-graduate work in England, where he worked under Rutherford at Cambridge, and at the University of Göttingen as a student of Max BORN. Returning to the United States in 1928, he accepted professorships simultaneously at the California Institute of Technology and at the University of California. He became famous for developing bombardment by deuterons as a tool in atomic energy research.
   In 1943 Oppenheimer was appointed head of the Los Alamos laboratories, where the first atomic bomb was constructed. In 1947 he became director of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, where he remained until 1966. From 1947 until 1953 he also served as chairman of the General Advisory Committee to the US Atomic Energy Commission. Though he had approved the use of the atom bomb against Japan, after World War II Oppenheimer pressed hard for international control of atomic weapons, and used all his influence in the fight to prevent further research and development of nuclear weapons. These efforts were probably responsible, together with his youthful left-wing associations in the 1930s, for his public castigation at the hands of Senator Joseph McCarthy at the height of the senator’s anti-Communist witch-hunt. In 1954 he was labelled ‘a loyal citizen but not a good security risk’ by the Atomic Energy Commission, and was denied access to classified information. However, some nine years later the Commission gave Oppenheimer the 1963 Fermi Award for his contribution to nuclear research.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT — (1904–1967), U.S. physicist. Oppenheimer was in charge of the construction of the first atomic bomb as director of the laboratories at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Born in New York City, Oppenheimer was the son of a cultured and successful businessman …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Oppenheimer, J. Robert — ▪ American physicist in full  Julius Robert Oppenheimer   born , April 22, 1904, New York, New York, U.S. died February 18, 1967, Princeton, New Jersey  American theoretical physicist and science administrator, noted as director of the Los Alamos …   Universalium

  • Oppenheimer , Julius Robert — (1904–1967) American physicist Oppenheimer came from a wealthy New York City family. He was educated at Harvard, at Cambridge, England, and at Göttingen where he obtained his PhD in 1927. From 1929 to 1942 he was at the University of California,… …   Scientists

  • Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert — (1904 1967)    Born to German immigrant parents in New York City, J. Robert Oppenheimer obtained a degree in chemistry from Harvard University in 1925 and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Göttingen, Germany, in 1927. After further… …   Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era

  • Oppenheimer, J Robert — 1904–1967    In 1936 Oppenheimer was a professor of atomic or nuclear physics at the University of California. In 1942 when the USA joined the war he was appointed Director of the government laboratory at Los Alamos and Head of the team which was …   Who’s Who in World War Two

  • Oppenheimer, J. Robert — ► (1904 67) Físico estadounidense, autor de diversos trabajos sobre la teoría cuántica del átomo. Director de la primera puesta a punto de la bomba atómica, se opuso después a este proyecto. En 1963 le fue concedido el premio Fermi. También… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • OPPENHEIMER (J. R.) — OPPENHEIMER JULIUS ROBERT (1904 1967) Physicien américain né à New York et mort à Princeton, Julius Robert Oppenheimer entre, en 1925, à l’université Harvard. Diplômé en 1928, il poursuit des études de mathématiques et de physique théorique à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Oppenheimer — Oppenheimer, Franz Oppenheimer, J. Robert …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Oppenheimer — (Julius Robert) (1904 1967) physicien américain: travaux de mécanique quantique. En 1943, il fut nommé directeur du centre de recherches de Los Alamos où fut construite la première bombe atomique …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Robert Oppenheimer — J. Robert Oppenheimer …   Wikipedia Español

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