Nicholas II

(1868–1918)
   Czar of Russia 1894–1917. The last of the czars was a weak man who had imbibed much of the reactionary and anti- Semitic outlook of his father ALEXANDER in. In the struggle of the regime against the rising liberal and revolutionary tide in Russia, the Jews were often made the scapegoats. Anti-Semitic incitement by groups such as the notorious Black Hundreds enjoyed the connivance and protection of the authorities and the police. Nicholas’ reign witnessed a series of pogroms such as those that started in Kishinev in 1903, and the officially concocted BEILIS blood libel trial of 1913. It was not surprising that a number of Jewish intellectuals were involved in the struggle to overthrow the czarist regime. Nicholas II was deposed in the 1917 revolution, and soon after murdered with his family.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

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