Frank, Anne

(1929–45)
   Nazi victim. On her thirteenth birthday, 12 June 1942, Anne Frank received amongst her presents an exercise book with a stiff cover, in which she began to keep a diary. She noted that it was an odd idea, for who would be interested in the thoughts of a young schoolgirl. ‘Still I want to write, but more than that, I want to bring out all kinds of things that lie buried deep in my heart’. The diary itself would be her friend and she would call it ‘Kitty’. To start with, ‘Dear Kitty’ is told something about Anne’s family background. She records that ‘as we are Jewish’ they had to leave their home in Frankfurt-am-Main, where she and her sister Margot, three years older, were born. They had started life again in Amsterdam, where her father had business interests. But in May 1940, the Netherlands was occupied by the Germans. Anne set down in a matter-of-fact way the anti-Jewish decrees under which they lived, including the wearing of a yellow star and being forbidden to ride in trams, go to non-Jewish shops, visit a cinema, take part in sports, or have social ties with Christians. That entry ends cheerfully, ‘So far everything is alright with the four of us.’ Her father said to her, ‘Make the most of your carefree young life while you can.’ He was quietly preparing a secret hiding place in two rooms at the back of the firm’s warehouse. They disappeared into them on 9 July 1942, when Mr Frank received his ‘call-up’ notice from the Nazi authorities.
   For the next two years, eight Jews lived in this cramped space - the Frank family, a Mr and Mrs Van Daan and their son Peter (two years older than Anne), and Mr Dussel, a dentist. Faithful Dutch friends risked their own lives by bringing them food through an entrance to the secret annex covered by a bookcase. Anne’s diary chronicled their lives and relationships with perception and candour, and a growing talent as a writer. She confided to ‘Dear Kitty’ her own hopes and fears, her tender feelings for Peter, the glimpses of the outside world seen through a crack in the curtain arid the news that reached them about the war. Through it her natural gaiety and zest for life remained intact. They heard about the Normandy landings at the beginning of June 1944, and the Allied armies battling their way into Europe. Their hopes rose that the liberators were coming. Who came instead on 4 August 1944 were the Gestapo, accompanied by Dutch Nazis. Someone had betrayed them.
   The epilogue to the story was pieced together from the Nazi archives of death and from the accounts of survivors. The occupants of the annex were packed off in cattle trucks to Auschwitz, the concentration camp in Poland. Mr Van Daan was sent to the gas chambers. Nothing is known of his wife’s fate, nor Peter’s, nor that of Mr Dussel. Anne’s mother died in the camp. Anne and her sister were sent to the Bergen-Belsen extermination centre, where they both died of typhus. The only survivor was Mr Frank. He was lying in the camp hospital when Auschwitz was liberated. When he came back to Amsterdam, two Dutch girls, friends of Anne, handed him her diary. It had been found among some old newspapers on the floor of the secret hiding-place. It was first published in 1947 and became widely known through the play and the film based on it. The house in Amsterdam where they had hidden was turned into the Anne Frank Youth Centre. This bright young girl had been swallowed up by the vast Nazi slaughter machine, and had become an infinitesimal fraction of a statistic - ‘the six million’.
   But for millions of people she lived on as a human symbol of what had happened to her generation of Jews in Europe.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • FRANK, ANNE — (1929–1945), teenage Holocaust victim who won fame following the posthumous publication of her now famous diary. Through the pages of this book, which she composed during more than two years of hiding from her Nazi persecutors, she has emerged as …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Frank,Anne — Frank (frăngk, frängk), Anne. 1929 1945. German Jewish diarist who fled from Nazi Germany to Amsterdam with her family (1933) and kept a diary during her years in hiding (1942 1944). She and her family were captured (August 1944) and sent to… …   Universalium

  • Frank, Anne — ▪ German diarist in full  Annelies Marie Frank  born June 12, 1929, Frankfurt am Main, Germany died March 1945, Bergen Belsen concentration camp, near Hannover, Germany       young Jewish girl whose diary of her family s two years in hiding… …   Universalium

  • Frank, Anne — (1929–1944)    The efforts of Dutch Jews to escape deportation to the death camps included a number of Jews who went into hiding. The best known example of “diving under,” as the expression was used to describe those who hid from the Germans, was …   Historical dictionary of the Holocaust

  • FRANK, Anne — (1929–1945)    Jewish girl born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, who fled with her parents to Holland in 1933 after the Nazis seized power in Germany. During World War II, the Frank family went into hiding in the back part of their house… …   Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands

  • Frank, Anne — 1929–1945    Anne Frank is known to millions because of the record she left of her experience of the war. In her diary she described how her family and some friends lived in an attic from July 1942, when they feared they might be sent to… …   Who’s Who in World War Two

  • Frank, Anne — (1929 45)    Dutch diarist. Her family fled from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933. When deportations of Jews from Holland began in 1942, she and her family went into hiding. In December 1944 she was deported to Bergen Belsen where she died. Her diary …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Frank, Anne(lies Marie) — born June 12, 1929, Frankfurt am Main, Ger. died March 1945, Bergen Belsen concentration camp, near Hannover German diarist. Frank was a young Jewish girl who kept a record of the two years her family spent in hiding in Amsterdam to escape Nazi… …   Universalium

  • Anne Franck — Anne Frank Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank.  Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Anne frank — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank.  Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank …   Wikipédia en Français

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