Cromwell, Oliver

(1599–1658)
   Lord protector of Britain 1653–8. As lord protector after the Puritan victory in the English Civil War, Cromwell was disposed to favour the re-entry of the Jews, who had been banned in 1290. He was not motivated only by religious tolerance, but considered that the Jews were likely to improve English trade at the expense of Holland. There were already a few groups of Marranos in England and Cromwell seems to have known some of them personally. He supported the proposal for re-admission submitted by MANASSEH BEN-ISRAEL.
   In 1655 the Council of State was divided on the question, and a conference was convened of twenty-eight men distinguished in public, economic and intellectual life. The main statement was made by Cromwell. It was found that no actual law existed forbidding the return of the Jews: EDWARD I’s expulsion had been by royal prerogative only. When the conference wished to impose harsh conditions on Jews who settled in the country, Cromwell dissolved it. It was expected that he would then re-admit the Jews on his own authority, but in fact he did nothing. The most serious opposition came from some of the clergy and the merchants. Cromwell poured scorn on the objections of the latter, demanding how such a miserable and wretched people as they said the Jews were could be any threat to English merchants.
   Cromwell passed to the Council of State a petition from the Marrano community in England, affirming his desire that they should approve it. The decision is not on record, but the lease of the first London synagogue was signed on 19 December 1656.
   Cromwell also demonstrated friendship for Manasseh ben-Israel by granting him a pension of Ј100 a year. The fact that there was no formal decree for readmitting the Jews proved to be an advantage, for Jewish life revived in England without restrictive conditions being imposed.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

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  • Cromwell, Oliver — born April 25, 1599, Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, Eng. died Sept. 3, 1658, London English soldier and statesman, lord protector of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1653–58). He was elected to Parliament in 1628, but… …   Universalium

  • Cromwell, Oliver — ► (1599 1658) Político inglés. Diputado puritano. En la guerra entre el rey Carlos I y el Parlamento alcanzó victorias decisivas, condenando a muerte al rey en 1649. Proclamó la República y se nombró jefe del estado en 1653. Impulsó la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Cromwell, Oliver — ( 1599 1658)    ruler of England during the Puritan Revolution    Oliver Cromwell, who as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth ruled England through the 1640s until his death, was born in Huntingdon in 1599. He was educated in his hometown by a… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Cromwell, Oliver — (1599–1658)    Politician.    Cromwell was born in Huntingdon and was educated at the University of Cambridge. He was elected to Parliament in 1628 and 1640. In the Long Parliament he emerged as the leader of the Puritan party. In the English… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Cromwell, Oliver —    Chiefly remembered in folk tradition as a destroyer. A considerable number of castles and manor houses, especially in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, are said (incorrectly) to have been destroyed or severely damaged by Cromwell s cannon fire; an… …   A Dictionary of English folklore

  • CROMWELL, OLIVER —    Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England, born at Huntingdon, the son of Robert Cromwell, the younger son of Sir Henry Cromwell, and of Elizabeth Steward, descended from the royal family of Scotland, their third child and second boy;… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • CROMWELL, Oliver — (1599 1658)    English PURITAN general and democrat who championed the rights of commoners against King Charles I and aristocracy. He founded the New Model Army which he led to victory in the English Civil War. After Charles I threatened a second …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Cromwell,Oliver — Crom·well (krŏmʹwĕl , wəl, krŭmʹ ), Oliver. 1599 1658. English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642 1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of… …   Universalium

  • Oliver Cromwell — Cromwell redirects here. For other uses, see Cromwell (disambiguation). For other people named Oliver Cromwell, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). Oliver Cromwell Portrait of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper …   Wikipedia

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