Caro, Joseph ben-Ephraim

   Religious authority and mystic. Caro is best remembered as the author of the Shulchan Aruch (arranged table). He was born into a rabbinical family from Toledo, Spain, that moved to Portugal. At some point the family left Portugal, but nothing more definite is known of Joseph during this period beyond his own statement that he began his talmudic commentary, Bet Yosef (‘House of Joseph’), in 1522. in Adrianople (Turkey), where he lived until 1535. He probably reached Safad in the Galilee about 1537. Caro claimed to have been visited by a heavenly preacher (maggid) and later wrote down his revelations in a mystical diary, parts of which were preserved and published as Maggid Mesharim. In the minds of Caro and his contemporaries, there was no conflict between careful and detailed attention to the law, as shown in the Shulchan Aruch, and cabbalistic speculations such as those transmitted through the Maggid Mesharim diary. In the holy city of Safad, Caro was considered the leading scholar, and his talmudic academy attracted two hundred students. The arrival of Isaac LURIA in Safad in 1569–70 in a sense displaced Caro as the mystic leader in Palestine but his authority in religious law seems to have been accepted by Luria and his disciples. Caro, who lived an austere life, died at the age of 87 and was buried at Safad, where his grave can still be seen in the old cemetery. His great work, Bet Yosef, which was begun in 1522 and finished in 1542, was intended to be a systematic study of halachic literature in its entirety. It was first published in 1555. Caro’s aim was to sift through all talmudic codes and give the authoritative readings, based on the opinions of MAIMONIDES and other medieval scholars. In its shortened and simplified form, the Shulchan Aruch (perhaps intended for his students) remained for centuries the authoritative summation of Jewish law. In four columns, it listed daily duties, rules for Sabbaths and Feast Days, ritual laws and civil and marital laws. That life should be conducted according to the rulings of the Shulchan Aruch became the aim of an Orthodox Jew until 19-century emancipation completely changed the content of Jewish life.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

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  • CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM — (1488–1575), author of the Shulḥan Arukh . Life Caro was apparently born in Toledo, Castile. It seems that after the expulsion from Spain (1492) his family left for Turkey or Portugal, but it is possible that they left for Portugal even before… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Joseph ben Ephraim Karo — Joseph Karo Artistic conception of Karo s appearance Born 1488 Toledo, Spain Died 24 March 1575 Safed Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also …   Wikipedia

  • Joseph ben Ephraim Caro — n. (1488 1575) 16th century Jewish religious rabbinical authority and compiler of the Shulhan Aruch (Jewish code of laws) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Karo, Joseph ben Ephraim — born 1488, Spain died March 24, 1575, Safed, Palestine Spanish born Jewish scholar. When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, he and his parents settled in Turkey. Around 1536 he emigrated to Safed in Palestine, where he studied the Talmud… …   Universalium

  • Joseph Caro — Joseph ben Ephraim Caro, llamado también Joseph Caro, Karo o Qaro, en hebreo original יוסף קארו (n. Toledo (España), 1488; m. 24 de marzo de 1575), rabino, teólogo, jurista y escritor judío sefardí. Contenido 1 Biografía 2 Obras 3 Notas …   Wikipedia Español

  • Caro — may refer to:Places* Caro, Michigan * Caro, Morbihan * Çaro, Pyrénées AtlantiquesPeople* Annibale Caro, poet * Anthony Caro, sculptor * Elme Marie Caro, philosopher * Heinrich Caro, industrial chemist * Horatio Caro, chess player * Isabelle Caro …   Wikipedia

  • Caro — n. family name; Joseph ben Ephraim Caro (1488 1575), 16th century Jewish religious rabbinical authority and compiler of the Shulhan Aruch (Jewish code of laws) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Joseph Caro — Yossef Karo  Pour l’article homophone, voir Caro. Rabbi Yossef ben Ephraïm Karo (1488, Tolède (Espagne) 1575, Safed (Israël)) est l une des plus importantes autorités rabbiniques du judaïsme, Talmudiste, législateur et codificateur, en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ephraim Al-Naqawa — Ephraim Al Naqawa[1] (hébreu : אפרים בן ישראל אל נקווא Ephraim ben Israël al Naqawa), est un rabbin, médecin et théologien séfarade algérien du XIVe siècle (1359 1442). Fondateur de la communauté juive de Tlemcen, il est connu des Juifs …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ephraïm de Bonn — Ephraïm ben Jacob de Bonn (hébreu : רבי אפרים בן יעקב מבון Rabbi Ephraïm ben Yaaqov de Bonn) est un tossafiste rhénan du XIIe siècle (Bonn, 1132 après 1196). Exégète, décisionnaire, auteur liturgique et chroniqueur, lui et son frère… …   Wikipédia en Français

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