- (1875–1943)Hebrew poet. Tchernichowsky was an unusual figure in the modern Hebrew renaissance. His childhood was not spent in a shtetl or ghetto, but in the idyllic surroundings of a Crimean farm village, giving him a love of the Russian countryside. This inspired his early lyric poems, and a pagan attitude to life and nature. He rebelled against what he felt as the confines of Jewish orthodoxy and the arid intellectualism of Jewish culture.These tendencies were stimulated by his gift for languages. Russian, German, French and English brought him into the mainstream of the 19–century Romantic movement in Europe; while Greek and Latin gave him access to the ancient classics. He expanded the literary sources of Hebrew poetry, deflated its didactic tone, and gave it a freer range of metrical form, especially the narrative epic and ballad. A large and handsome man with wavy, black hair and a thick moustache, he projected a Byronesque image.Yet Tchernichowsky was not an assimilationist. His agnostic leanings were combined with sentimental memories of his early Jewish upbringing; his involvement in European languages and culture with a Hebrew style full of biblical rhythms; and his distaste for a crumbling Diaspora heritage with a passionate Zionist commitment.At the age of fourteen, he was sent to school in Odessa, then a lively centre of Hebrew letters and of the Chovevei Zion (‘Lovers of Zion’) movement. As a Jew, he failed to gain admission to a Russian university and studied medicine in Heidelberg and Lausanne. In 1910 he set up a practice in St Petersburg, and served as an army surgeon in World War I. After the Russian revolution of 1917, he eked out a precarious existence in Odessa before leaving Russia for good and settling in Berlin (1922–31).He emigrated to Palestine in 1931 and lived there till his death. He was employed as a medical inspector of schools, edited a dictionary of scientific and medical terms in Hebrew, and resumed his writing after a few years. His poetry increasingly reflected the Jewish tragedy in Europe and his own fervent nationalism.Tchernichowsky’s output included short stories, critical essays, and translations into Hebrew of major classics: Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad, Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night and Macbeth, works of Goethe and Molière, and the great Finnish epic cycle of the Kallevvalach.
Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. Joan Comay . 2012.
Look at other dictionaries:
TCHERNICHOWSKY, SAUL — (1875–1943), Hebrew poet. Born in the village of Mikhailovka, Russia, Tchernichowsky grew up in the home of pious parents who were, however, open to the influences of the haskalah and Ḥibbat Zion . He attended a modern Hebrew school, where he… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Tchernichowsky, Saul — ▪ Jewish poet Tchernichowsky also spelled Chernikhovsky born Aug. 20, 1875, Crimea, Ukraine, Russian Empire died Oct. 13, 1943, Jerusalem prolific Hebrew poet, whose poetry, in strongly biblical language, dealt with Russia, Germany, and… … Universalium
Hebrew literature — Introduction the body of written works produced in the Hebrew language and distinct from Jewish literature, which also exists in other languages. Literature in Hebrew has been produced uninterruptedly from the early 12th century BC,… … Universalium
HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN — definition and scope beginnings periodization … Encyclopedia of Judaism
BIBLE — THE CANON, TEXT, AND EDITIONS canon general titles the canon the significance of the canon the process of canonization contents and titles of the books the tripartite canon … Encyclopedia of Judaism
RUSSIA — RUSSIA, former empire in Eastern Europe; from 1918 the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (R.S.F.S.R.), from 1923 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.); from 1990 the Russian Federation. Until 1772 ORIGINS The penetration… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH — (1874–1958), literary critic, historian, and Zionist. Klausner was born in Olkienik, near Vilna, but in 1885 his family moved to Odessa where he attended a Hebrew day school. Already in his earliest years he evinced a passion for the Hebrew… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
WRITERS' ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL — (Heb. הָעִבְרִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲגֻדָּת הַסּוֹפְרִים), organization of Hebrew writers established in 1921 in Tel Aviv by a conference of 70 writers, presided over by nahum sokolow . Attempts to found a Hebrew writers association in Russia and… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
UNITED STATES LITERATURE — The Influence of the Bible and Hebrew Culture The Jewish influence on American literary expression predated the actual arrival of Jews in the United States in 1654, for the Puritan culture of New England was marked from the outset by a deep… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
CHILDREN'S LITERATURE — This entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction CHILDREN S LITERATURE IN HEBREW early period … Encyclopedia of Judaism